A bruise is an injury of the tissue under the skin that causes an area of discolored skin. Another word for bruise is contusion.
Bruises often result from an injury such as a fall or blow. Small blood vessels bleed into the tissues under the skin and cause the skin to change colors.
There are things that may make you bruise more easily, such as medicines or supplements, a lack of certain vitamins, or a blood-clotting problem. Older adults bruise more easily because their blood vessels are more fragile and their skin thins with age.
The usual symptoms are pain, swelling, and discolored skin. Some bruises may cause only a little tenderness, but deep bruises of muscles can be very painful. Bruises are usually purple at first and then slowly fade over a couple of weeks to various shades of brown, yellow, and green.
Most bruises need no special treatment. The body will repair the bruised area and the skin will return to a normal color.
Bruises on the abdomen, chest, or lower back after injury can be a sign of damage to internal organs. Bruising around both eyes (“raccoon eyes”) after injury to the head can also mean serious injury. Come to Reddy Urgent Care for these types of bruises to make sure they are not signs of more serious injury.
Here are some things you can do to relieve pain and reduce swelling:
Rest the part of your body that is hurt, particularly if it is painful.
Put a cool wet cloth, ice pack, or package of frozen vegetables wrapped in a cloth or towel on the bruise for 15 to 20 minutes at a time (longer might cause frostbite), 4 to 8 times a day for 1 to 2 days after the injury.
Lightly wrap the bruised area with an elastic bandage (Ace wrap) or soft cloth if it is swollen.
Keep the injured area above the level of the heart as much as possible to help decrease the pain and swelling. You may need to prop it on a pillow to keep it resting higher than the heart.
When the swelling has stopped, usually after the second day, a warm washcloth or heating pad set on the lowest setting may help the bruise heal faster.
Take acetaminophen or nonprescription anti-inflammatory medicine such as ibuprofen for pain.
Do not massage the bruised area.
Come to Reddy Urgent Care if:
You are getting bruises for no reason.
A bruise does not heal.
You have bruising around the eyes.
You have bruising with unexplained bleeding from the nose, gums, or eyes.
You have blood in the urine.
Most bruises go away in a couple weeks. Severe bruises cause deep tissue damage and may take several weeks to heal.
Bruises are usually accidental and hard to prevent. If you play contact sports or activities that increase your risk of injury, wear protective padding.